food sanitation and necessity
Food sanitation and its necessity
Food sanitation is more than just cleanliness. It included all practices involved in protecting food from risk of contamination, harmful bacteria, poisons and foreign bodies, preventing any bacteria from multiplying to an extent which would result in an illness of consumers; and destroying any harmful bacteria in the food by thorough cooking or processing
The primary tenet of food-service sanitation is absolute cleanliness. It begins with personal hygiene, the safe handling of foods during preparation, and clean utensils, equipment, appliances, storage facilities, kitchen and dining room. Control of the microbial quality of food must focus on the preparation of food itself, food handlers, facilities and equipment. The quality of food depends on the condition when purchased and the time temperature control during storage, preparation and service. Personal hygiene and cleanliness of the facilities and equipment also contribute to food safety.
Definition of terms
1. Food – Any substance whether simple, mixed or compounded that is used as food, drink, confectionery or condiments.
2. Safety – is overall quality of food fit for consumption
3. Sanitation – is a health of being clean and conducive to health.
4. Cleanliness – is the absence of visible soil or dirt and is not necessarily sanitized
5. Microbiology - the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other microorganisms.
6. Microorganisms - organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size. (Bacterium, protozoan).
7. Food Infection - microbial infection resulting from ingestion of contaminated foods.
8. Food Intoxication - type of illness caused by toxins. Under favorable condition certain bacteria produce chemical compounds called toxins
9. Food Spoilage - means the original nutritional value, texture, flavor of the food are damaged, the food become harmful to people and unsuitable to eat.
While planning and organizing require mental effort on the part of the manager, directing is the function that initiates actual performance of tasks and requires greater interaction between people.
Instructing:-In this a manager may have worked out a perfect plan of activities indicating who is to do what.
All instruction should be clearly written out in a language understood by the staff.
Verbally communicated to the staff so that any queries arising from them can be clarifies before the work actually starts.
Copies of the written instructions may be placed on notice boards and at suitable points in the kitchen and service areas to reinforce the instructions communicated.
• Instructions must ensure that each member understands how his work fits into the total scheme of work to be achieved at the end of the day, week, and month and so on.
• Guiding: - The task of directing people involves guiding them in their jobs in a manner that will help them to achieve the standards of performance desired and also gradually develop themselves their jobs.
• Supervising:-supervision involves keeping a watch on what is going on at the production, service and other related activity levels.
• Teaching:-The person responsible for motivating people to achieve goals has got to be able to demonstrate methods of work which will relieve stress situations in the production and service centers.
• Reviewing:-Reviewing the effect of every activity on individual and total performance is the job of every food director.
Coordination is the act of organizing, making different people or things work together for a goal or effect to fulfill desired goals in an organization.
Co-ordination is an integral element or ingredient of all the managerial functions as discussed below: -
Co-ordination through Planning - Planning facilitates co-ordination by integrating the various plans through mutual discussion, exchange of ideas.
Co-ordination through Organizing - Money considers co-ordination as the very essence of organizing. In fact when a manager groups and assigns various activities to subordinates, and when he creates department’s co-ordination uppermost in his mind.
Co-ordination through Staffing - A manager should bear in mind that the right no. of persons in various positions with right type of education and skills are taken which will ensure right men on the right job.
Co-ordination through Directing - The purpose of giving orders, instructions & guidance to the subordinates is served only when there is a harmony between superiors & subordinates.
Co-ordination through Controlling - Manager ensures that there should be co-ordination between actual performance & standard performance to achieve organizational goals.
Controlling is a systematic exercise which is called as a process of checking actual performance against the standards or plans with a view to ensure adequate progress and also recording such experience as is gained as a contribution to possible future needs.
Controlling has got two basic purposes
It facilitates co-ordination
It helps in planning
Features of Controlling Function
Following are the characteristics of controlling function of management-
Controlling is an end function- A function which comes once the performances are made in conformities with plans.
Controlling is a pervasive function- which means it is performed by managers at all levels and in all type of concerns.
Controlling is forward looking- because effective control is not possible without past being controlled. Controlling always looks to future so that follow-up can be made whenever required.
Controlling is a dynamic process- since controlling requires taking reviewable methods; changes have to be made wherever possible.
Controlling is related with planning- Planning and Controlling are two inseparable functions of management. Without planning, controlling is a meaningless exercise and without controlling, planning is useless. Planning presupposes controlling and controlling succeeds planning.
Evaluation is a process of determining how well people performs their functions, by ascertaining and comparing actual results with expected ones, over a period of time.
TOOLS OF MANAGEMENT
Tools of Management refer to materials which have been developed by managers in the past and used as an aid to effective management.
Tools of management can be distinctly classified into two categories namely, tangible and intangible tools.
Tangible tools are those aids to management that have been developed by experience of managers in different work situations and organizations and represent a collection of those tools that resulted in successful decisions in the past.
ORGANISATIONAL CHART:-An organization chart tells us about the subordinate-superior relationships and the lines of decision making authority that exist in an establishment, in other words who reports to whom.
JOB DESCRIPTION:-It refers to the definition of a job in a precise manner indicating exactly what is to be done by people who are occupying or would be occupying a job position in an establishment.
Job descriptions need to be more detailed, clear-cut and expressed in a language and form which can be understood by less educated workers.
At higher levels people have a better knowledge of the work for which they are appointed and are expected to have a higher mental caliber.
JOB SPECIFICATION:-It is a statement indicating standards to be achieved for a particular job.
It also covers duties expected to be performed, working conditions in which the job would be carried out and the qualifications required.
WORK SCHEDULE:-This represents an outline of the work to be done by an employee. When this is to be completed within a time schedule as well, then it is referred to as a time and activity plan.
JOB ANALYSIS:-It is referred to as task analysis and is a way of looking at jobs and situations in which a number of variables are involved.
BUDGET:-A budget is a projected plan for the operation of a business. It is sometimes expressed in terms of money, but at other times may also be expressed in units or percentages.
BENCHMARKING:-It a structural method of learning better processes or techniques from other similar establishments and implementing them in one’s own system.
Intangible tools are the qualities with which people are naturally endowed or to some extent acquired through training and conditioning.
Intangible tools help to motivate and carry a work force from diverse backgrounds towards preset goals of an organization, by utilizing them in decision making processes.
PERSONALITY: - This is the sum total of a manager’s physical stature, mental and emotional status, social habits, outlook or vision with respect to his total work and the environment.
TRUST: - used effectively in situations when work along with authority and responsibility needs to be transferred to colleagues or subordinates in order to get work done efficiently and on time.
EXPERIENCE: - when any organization thinks of appointing new employees experience counts, as evidenced through any qualification request seen in employment advertisements of various job positions.
SOCIAL AND INTERACTIVE SKILLS: - People vary in the ways in which they interact with others at work depending on their inherent nature in terms of being extrovert or introvert, the former being more easily able to approach people irrespective of their position in the hierarchy, than the latter. Social skills may be used effectively as a tool by managers in the form of getting together informally with their employees over tea.
SELF CONFIDENCE: - It is the ability to express oneself without hesitation because one is sure of one’s own capabilities.
This trait shows in a manager’s personality, posture, voice and conviction in what is said or done in different circumstances.
KNOWLEDGE: - It is a very important tool of management because degrees alone do not impart decision making abilities, and people with more book knowledge do not necessarily become good managers. Knowledge is acquired generally by interest and interaction with ones environment through informal and formal training.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS:-Communication is therefore the most important tool of management when dealing with people, yet it is the most difficult to achieve effectively, because it involves much more than just sending and receiving messages.
LEADERSHIP QUALITY:-Leadership quality makes people look up to a manager for advice, feel motivated to work for him and respect, loyalty and love are generated in the work environment.
GOODWILL: - Goodwill is the feeling of oneness with people whether colleagues at work or customers who visit an establishment. It is an important tool for harmony at work as it inhibits ill feelings or jealousy in an otherwise competitive environment. It is that quality which makes customers come back to an establishment repeatedly because they feel at home, being served with quality food in an atmosphere infused with love and consideration, exhibiting good manners in a happy comfortable environment.
APPRECIATION: - All managers are quick to criticize even if a small mistake is detected, but the tendency to praise employees for work well done and appreciate their talents is generally absent or very infrequent.
TRAINING: - With catering becoming more and more competitive, professional training of employees at all levels is becoming an indispensable tool for the management of operations. This is because training imparts knowledge of the various aspects of the operation, and skills to deal with the influences of the ever-changing environment.
DECISION-MAKING:- Decision-making (DM) is the ability to forecast changes in the organization and its external environment and react in advance or be prepared to react in any eventuality. No work at any level can be performed without making decisions.