Impact of personality on brand selection and satisfaction






For consumers, brands have symbolic characteristics that construct the image of the user of the product made by the particular brand.  These characteristics are known as brand personalities (Aaker 1997). These aspects tell them how a typical user of this brand would look like and behave and how the product would affect their lifestyle. Brands do not sell a product, but the lifestyle that a consumer would be living, if they purchase the product. To decide if the consumer likes the brand, the consumer tries to match their own self-perceived image with that of the typical user of the product. This gives the consumer a positive attitude towards the product. The phenomenon of perceiving one’s own image with that of the typical user is known as self image congruity. Aaker (1997) summarized the different scales of brand personality, into five traits: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness.

Sincerity: down-to-earth, real, sincere, and honest

Excitement:  daring, exciting, imaginative, and contemporary

Competence:  intelligent, reliable, secure and confident

Sophistication: glamorous, upper-class, good looking, and charming

Ruggedness: tough, outdoorsy, masculine, and western.


The brand personality of the popular soda drink Coca Cola is excitement. The brand personality of Apple is about lifestyle;  innovation; aspirations; and power-to-the-people through technology.

Self image congruity is a very strong predictor of consumers’ brand preferences and a good predictor of consumer satisfaction. Consumers with higher levels of self‐image congruity were more likely to prefer the brand and enjoy higher levels of satisfaction with the brand as compared to those with lower levels of self‐image congruity. Satisfied consumers are loyal to a company longer than unsatisfied ones. Self image congruity is measured by methods including algebraic models like distance models, multiplicative models, product-anchored measures and other grouping techniques such as factor analysis and multidimensional scaling. Creating loyalty in today’s competitive market has become complicated because of the standard homogeneity in the consumer perception of product quality, an increase in the variety of superior brands and an increase in alternatives. 

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